This lectures considers the issue of non-causal physical plant model deployed in a control development environment, which is causal. The environment used in Matlab/Simulink.



The requirements for Hybrid Electric Vehicle simulation are varied, according to determined vehicle dynamic operation or determined driver demand. It is helpful to develop models once, which will satisfy both these requirements. These models must therefore be non-causal. However, the industry standard environment for control development is Matlab/Simulink, which is a causal modelling environment. An approach to overcome this limitation is to develop one physical model in the multi-physics software Dymola, which uses the Modellica language and create S-functions for versions of the model to suit either causality. The electric drive for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle is illustrated here.


Fig. 1: Modelling structure

Fig. 2: Causal Simulink Model



A. Walker, A. McGordon, G. Hannis, A. Picarelli, J. Breddy, S, Carter, Adrian Vinsome,P. Jennings, M. Dempsey, M. Willows
"A novel structure for comprehensive HEV powertrain modelling",
Windsor (UK), September 2006.

A. Walker, A. McGordon, J. Breddy, A. Vinsome, P. Jennings, M.Willows,
"Cost Functions Applied to HEV Powertrain Control",
Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS'22)
Yokohama (Japan), October 2006.