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EMR and other tools

EMR and other tools

Causal Ordering Graph (COG) has been introduced ten years ago [Hautier 96] to describe power electronics and electrical machines for developing their control. This graphical description exclusively uses integral causality [Iwasaki 94] [Rubin 97] on the contrary as the well-known Bond-Graph that authorizes the derivative causality [Paynter 61] as other methods derived from Bond Graph, like Power-Oriented Graph [Zanasi 06] or Power Flow Diagram [Geitner 06]. The inversion of this graph yields the control structure of the system with measurements and controllers.

Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) has been introduced in 2000 for research development in complex electromechanical drives especially multi-drives systems [Bouscayrol 00]. EMR is based on action reaction principle, which organizes the system as interconnected subsystems according to the integral causality. An inversion of this description leads to macro-control blocks.
These both graphical descriptions have been successfully used for control of various applications: [Barre 06], [Dajni 06] [Lhomme 05] [Verhille 04]. A comparison with Bond-Graph and Signal Flow diagram has been provided in [Bouscayrol 05].

COG has been used in teaching since 1996 at University of Lille and the engineering schools of Lille ENSAM, Ecole Centrale and Polytech'Lille. EMR has been introduced in 2002 in the common Master degree of these university establishments. Both graphical tools are used in some other French universities and also at Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (Canada) since 2002 [Thiffault 2006] and Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland) since 2005. Indeed these graphical descriptions enable a unified way for causal description of the components of electromechanical systems. Moreover simple inversion rules leads to easily deduce the control structure of the studied system. It is then a very useful intermediary step for students to develop control of electrical drives.

More informations about :

POG (Power Oriented Graph):
BG (Bond Graph):
COG (Causal ordering Graph):

[Barre 06] P. J. Barrre, A. Bouscayrol, P. Delarue, E. Dumetz, F. Giraud, J. P. Hautier, X. Kestelyn, B. Lemaire-Semail, E. Semail, "Inversion-based control of electromechanical systems using causal graphical descriptions", IEEE-IECON'06, Paris, November 2006.
[Bouscayrol 00] A. Bouscayrol, B. Davat, B. de Fornel, B. François, J. P. Hautier, F. Meibody-Tabar, M. Pietrzak-David, "Multimachine Multiconverter System: application for electromechanical drives", EPJ Applied Physics, vol. 10, no. 2, May 2000, pp. 131-147.
[Bouscayrol 05] A. Bouscayrol, G. Dauphin-Tanguy, R Schoenfeld, A. Pennamen, X. Guillaud, G.-H. Geitner, "Different energetic descriptions for electromechanical systems", EPE'05, Dresden (Germany), September 2005. (common paper of L2EP Lille, LAGIS Lille and University of Dresden).
[Djani 06] Y. Djani, P. Sicard, A. Bouscayrol, "Extension of Energetic Macroscopic Representation to time-varying systems, applications to winder tension control", IEEE-ISIE'06, Montreal, July 2006 (common paper of University of Québec Trois Rivières and L2EP Lille).
[Geitner 06] G. H. Geitner, "Power Flow Diagrams Using a Bond graph Library under Simulink", IEEE-IECON'06, Paris, November 2006.
[Hautier 96] J. P. Hautier, J. Faucher, "The Causal Ordering Graph", Bulletin de l'Union des Physiciens, (text in French), vol. 90, juin 1996, pp. 167-189.
[Hautier 04] J. P. Hautier, P. J. Barre, "The causal ordering graph - A tool for modelling and control law synthesis", Studies in Informatics and Control Journal, vol. 13, no. 4, December 2004, pp. 265-283.
[Iwasaki 94] I. Iwasaki, H. A. Simon, "Causality and model abstraction", Artificial Intelligence, Elsevier, vol. 67, 1994, pp. 143-194.
[Lhomme 05] W. Lhomme, P. Delarue, P. Barrade, A. Bouscayrol, A. Rufer, "Design and control of a supercapacitors storage system for traction applications", IEEE-IAS'05, Hong-Kong, October 2005, vol. 3, pp. 2013-2020 (common paper of L2EP Lille and EPF Lausnne).
[Paynter 61] JH. Paynter, "Analysis and design of engineering systems", MIT Press, 1961.
[Rubin 97] Z. Rubin, S. Munns, J. Moskowa, "The development of vehicular powertrain system modeling methodologies: philosophy and implementation", System Automotive Engineering, paper 971089, 1997.
[Verhille 04] J. N. Verhille, A. Bouscayrol, P. J. Barre, J. C. Mercieca, J. P. Hautier, E. Semail, "Torque tracking strategy for anti-slip control in railway traction systems with common supplies", IEEE-IAS'04, Seattle (USA), October 2004, vol. 4., pp. 2738-2745 (common paper of L2EP Lille and Siemens Transportation Systems).
[Zanasi 06] R. Zanasi, R. Morselli, "Modeling of Automotive Control Systems Using Power Oriented Graphs", IEEE-IECON'06, Paris, November 2006.
[Thiffault 06] C. Thiffault, "Désensibilisation d'un système de bobinage aux creux de tension et conception d'un système de gestion d'un banc d'essais expérimental", Master's report in Electrical Engineering, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, 2006.

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