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Bond Graph modelling and control of a Fuel Cell system for automotive traction






A control approach based on bond graph modelling is proposed to optimize the FC system efficiency for vehicle traction.



New scientific and technical breakthroughs as global energetic constraints show the way for Fuel Cells (FC) as a potential candidate for on-board electric generators supplying energy for automotive traction. FC appear as a fine system with high theoretical efficiency as well as a direct electricity power production from hydrogen with zero local emission (water production only). Nevertheless, ancillaries components have to be added and controlled in order to follow the FC to work properly, thus reducing the overall system efficiency.

This lecture proposes a control approach to optimize the FC system efficiency for vehicle traction ensuring system and environment safety. The first step addresses dynamical modelling of the FC itself governed by coupled nonlinear physical laws and of the ancillaries components in order to build a representative model of the system. Multi domain bond graph is used for this purpose. Secondly a hierarchical control approach is proposed. The high level consists in optimizing the system efficiency and giving references for the low level (components). At this low level, sliding modes controls are synthesised to regulate the FC operative conditions despite model uncertainties. The interest of the proposed method is shown by simulation tests using the overall system model.

Fig. 1: Fuel Cell System

Fig. 2: Simplified Bond Graph of the Membrane Electrode Assembly



S. Benbouzid, G. Dauphin-Tanguy, F. Guillemard, C. Nouillant
"Electrochemical Phenomena Modelling in PEM Fuel Cell with Bond Graph Approach",
Paris, October 2004.

N. Fouquet, C. Doulet, C. Nouillant, G. Dauphin-Tanguy, B. Ould-Bouamama
"Model based PEM fuel cell state-of-health monitoring via ac impedance measurements",
Journal of Power Sources
Vol. 159, no. 2, September 2006, pp. 905-913

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